Tagged with: PSM
ABSTRACT: Bessel beams are useful for alignment because they create a small diameter, bright, straight line image in space perpendicular to the Axicon grating producing a beam that is an exact analog of a single ray in a ray tracing program. Bessel beams are produced by plane Axicon gratings whose pattern is chrome on glass, evenly spaced, concentric circles that are illuminated by a point source of light on the grating axis. The grating produces a more nearly ideal Bessel beam than a cone shaped type Axicon. The plane grating also serves as a plane mirror in an alignment setup to define four degrees of freedom in space rather than the usual two a plane mirror does.
Most discussions of Bessel beams assume illumination with collimated light. We have found it advantageous to use a point source for illumination because it is easy to implement and less expensive using a single mode fiber as a source than a precision collimating lens the diameter of the Axicon. Besides, collimated illumination produces a Bessel beam of finite length in transmission while, in theory, a beam of infinite length is created using a point source.
With these assumptions about how Bessel beams are produced with plane gratings and details about the grating diameter and line spacing it is easy to calculate the useful length of the Bessel beam in reflection from the grating. Other practical matters are also discussed such as 4 degree of freedom lens centering with a test apparatus with no moving parts.
ABSTRACT: The Point Source Microscope (PSM) is used to locate the apex of retroreflecting prisms in 3 degrees of translational freedom with a precision of less than 1 micron. The process is easily explained for right angle prisms, as will be done in this paper, but the explanation is valid for cube corner retroreflectors such as those mounted in spherical balls, spherically mounted retroreflectors, or SMRs, for use with laser trackers. With suitable, simple fixturing, the measurements for all 3 directions are made to a precision of < 1 μm in less than 1 minute.