ABSTRACT: Stover, et. al., show that scatter in transmission through a window may be calculated from surface roughness in a manner similar to calculating BRDF from roughness for a reflecting surface.
ABSTRACT: A note describing initial measurements made with the MicroFinish Topographer (MFT) directly on large optical surfaces thereby eliminating the need for making replicas and making secondary measurements.
ABSTRACT: Description of the MicroFinish Topographer (MFT) and why its unique mechanical design largely removes the need for vibration isolation. The paper also describes how the MFT is used for making surface roughness measurements on large and small optics as well as its usefulness for on-machine measurement due to its small size and light weight.
ABSTRACT: A tutorial on use of the structure function (SF) as a specification to limit the effects of mid-spatial frequency roughness. The paper points out that the SF units of measurement are familiar to opticians and optical engineers and that it is easy to calculate the SF without making ambiguous assumptions as opposed to the use of Power Spectral Density function (PSD).
ABSTRACT: A paper that shows why simply specifying figure and rms surface roughness is not enough information to assure a finished optic will perform as expected. Mid-spatial frequency roughness must also be specified. There are examples using the PSM to show the effects of mid-spatial frequency roughness, and examples of using the structure function to characterize mid-spatial frequency roughness.
ABSTRACT: A paper by Del Hoyo, et. al., showing how the MicroFinish Topographer (MFT) was used for in process control assessment of the removal of high spatial frequency polishing errors during polishing as a function of type of polishing compound and polishing pad. The MFT was particularly useful for determining when a surface was fully polished out, that is, had no defects left from previous steps in the lapping and polishing process.
ABSTRACT: A paper by Talabaly, et. al., showing that a low magnification objective on the MicroFinish Topographer (MFT) can measure surface roughness in a spatial frequency domain that is so close to specular that it is not possible to make a similar measurement with a scatterometer. This makes it possible to predict a valid near specular BRDF that is functionally not measureable, particularly if the substrate material scatters.